4 hour rule Access ACS Aeromedical Airway Altitude anaesthesia Anaesthetics Anatomy Anticoagulation Aorta app app review Apple ARDS arrest Aviation Blogs blood products blunt trauma Books Brain Cadogan cardiac arrest Cardiology central access central line Checklists Child Abuse Christmas Clinical examination coagulopathy cooling CPR Critical Care CSF C-spine Developing World Digoxin toxicity Disposition Dissection Diving Dysbarism ECG ECGs Emergency Discharge Emergency Medicine EMPearls ENT epistaxis ETM course Extremity Trauma Eye Trauma FAST Fellowship Exam Flying Doctors Fractures Fun stuff GMergency! Haematology Head Injury Healthcare Human Factors hypertension hypothermia infectious diseases Intraosseous iPhone Ketamine KPI Learning Liver Injury local anaesthetic Lower Limb Malaria Massive transfusion Matrix MI Military Minh Le Cong MMassive transfusion Music Myocardial Infarction Myths neck Neuroscience Non Invasive Ventilation obesity Ophthalmology Orthopaedics Outback Paediatric Paediatric Airway Paediatric fever Papua New Guinea Paralytics PE Pharmacology Pneumonia podcast Posterior MI pre-hospital care pseudo-axiom Pulmonology Radiation Exposure Radiation Illness Radiology Random regional blocks Research Resuscitation Retrieval Review Revision RFDS ROSC rural RUSH safety Sedation sepsis Shock Simulation SMACC GOLD Smart phone Spinal cord injury Splenic Injury Star Wars stroke Surgery Systems Technical skills Technology Thoracic trauma Thrombolysis time Tourniquet Toxicology Training transfers transport Trauma Ultrasound Vascular video laryngoscopy

One of my all time heroes in Emergency Medicine - Mel Herbert at EM:RAP HQ, shamelessly plugging blog

This is an emergency medicine blog with a focus on trauma, and critical care, along with new technology & education. In addition, we will scour the existing blogs and resources out there, and attempt to keep the reader up to date with the ever expanding blogosphere...

Please subscribe by clicking "subscribe" on the menu above, for email updates on new posts etc. You may also follow us on Twitter, or Facebook, by clicking on the links in the sidebar to the right.  

Entries in Access (1)


IO Vs IV Access During Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest, an RCT

EDTCC has no financial interests to declare in Vidacare Corp (although we wish we did ;))

So the Annals this month has a simple RCT, pitting traditional IV access against intraosseous access by tibial or humeral route. And guess what....intraosseous (tibial) emerged the clear winner in terms of first time success, and time to access...

Study objective

Intraosseous needle insertion during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is rapidly replacing peripheral intravenous routes in the out-of-hospital setting. However, there are few data directly comparing the effectiveness of intraosseous needle insertions with peripheral intravenous insertions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The objective of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in the frequency of first-attempt success between humeral intraosseous, tibial intraosseous, and peripheral intravenous insertions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.


This was a randomized trial of adult patients experiencing a nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in which resuscitation efforts were initiated. Patients were randomized to one of 3 routes of vascular access: tibial intraosseous, humeral intraosseous, or peripheral intravenous. Paramedics received intensive training and exposure to all 3 methods before study initiation. The primary outcome was first-attempt success, defined as secure needle position in the marrow cavity or a peripheral vein, with normal fluid flow. Needle dislodgement during resuscitation was coded as a failure to maintain vascular access.


There were 182 patients enrolled, with 64 (35%) assigned to tibial intraosseous, 51 (28%) humeral intraosseous, and 67 (37%) peripheral intravenous access. Demographic characteristics were similar among patients in the 3 study arms. There were 130 (71%) patients who experienced initial vascular access success, with 17 (9%) needles becoming dislodged, for an overall frequency of first-attempt success of 113 (62%). Individuals randomized to tibial intraosseous access were more likely to experience a successful first attempt at vascular access (91%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 83% to 98%) compared with either humeral intraosseous access (51%; 95% CI 37% to 65%) or peripheral intravenous access (43%; 95% CI 31% to 55%) groups. Time to initial success was significantly shorter for individuals assigned to the tibial intraosseous access group (4.6 minutes; interquartile range 3.6 to 6.2 minutes) compared with those assigned to the humeral intraosseous access group (7.0 minutes; interquartile range 3.9 to 10.0 minutes), and neither time was significantly different from that of the peripheral intravenous access group (5.8 minutes; interquartile range 4.1 to 8.0 minutes).


Tibial intraosseous access was found to have the highest first-attempt success for vascular access and the most rapid time to vascular access during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared with peripheral intravenous and humeral intraosseous access.

Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Dec;58(6):509-16.